Autodidactics. Lecture 1. Beginning Of The Road Towards Inside Постпсихология - В.А.Куринский
 Начало  Литература  Книги  Музыка  Галерея  Поэзия  Встречи  Тренинги  Что говорят  Ссылки  FAQ  Движение
Автодидактика для детей и взрослых. Видео можно загрузить здесь





Autodidactics. Lecture 1

BEGINNING OF THE ROAD TOWARDS INSIDE

A spring and auftakt. – The first time on a movement as about an organ. – The fifth dimension. – Myth on memory–storeroom. – Beloved are remembered without being learned by heart. – On constancy in love. – “Uncle, break a toy!” – Jesus Christ – infinity of personalities. – On different interests of “an internal human”. – Psychological stances. – “Doubled” person. – Mantra for going to bed. – Pieces of destiny. – On benefit of imagination for the health. – A rule of pure thinking and a talent. – Borders of mystics. – High experiences. – Thought–feeling. – Tuning of a brain. – A little about total rationalism. – Multi–chanallness of being. – Emanuel Levinas and a role of the “other”. Praise to dialectics. – On almighty movements. – Three whales of Wagenshein”s pedagogics. – Focusing … in the mouth. – “Bird calls” not for hunters. – Culture – the fifth dimension.

 

Let me begin from a spring and, as one says, “con amore” – with love. However, it is very difficult to start from a source for it does not give an idea on the future of the spring, which can become a big river. That is why many people cannot imagine how difficult to define something they can have in the optimal case as their future, as their spirituality or result of work, started from a small rill, which is equal to this moment, this spacial and temporal piece, when I am here and speak to you.

 

So, we begin the postpsychological autodidactics as a scale with “C” or “D” note – from the source, which is not simple and, unfortunately, not clear for all but it is equivalent to what musicians call auftakt – that prime movement, which includes the whole space in itself, because everything what was before the auftakt, before this waff of conductor”s hand, all previous experience, no doubt, an individual includes in an indirect, compacted way into this movement.

 

Now let us think to ourselves individually, as if concentrating on privacy, on our public solitude, on our pre–destiny, – I suppose that destiny is still ahead of all of us, – on what we did before, if we were always identical to ourselves, if we could always say we lived in a talented way, at least to whisper, to ourselves, in the very deepness of “I”. I think it is very difficult to many of you to give a positive answer to this question – the question on self–consciousness of oneself.

 

A person who is not self–conscious of oneself, certainly, cannot apply a number of techniques, already developed by the humankind to learn successfully some knowledge and subjects. It is very important to realize one simple truth, to which Aristotle came: “Everything is a movement, that consists of three stages”. We will decipher this thought in a little while when exercising one excellent thing – becoming aware of movements, which we call muscular ones. Then we will speak about movements that are connected with a notion corresponding to a German word “Gestalt” – “form”, “image”, i.e. of image, gestalt movements. Everyone is familiar with them for the very ability to imagination makes a human different from an animal. Imagination (Lat. “imaginatio”) and an imaginative sphere can help people not only in recovering from a very serious illness but also in remembering huge volumes of information. Imagination in autodidactics is one of the most important notions to help us in working with our organism and our brain.

 

There are a lot writings on the brain now. I think it is dangerous even to touch the topic for interpretations at our disposal can lead us to a deadlock. One thing is obvious, – that knowledge on the level of neurophisiology, biology, psychobiology and other modern sciences, which pullulated from general biology, and maybe even cybernetics in some part, can deliver enormous amount of material, that each of us could use vis–à–vis with oneself, when we evaluate now what was before this moment, if I correlated myself with the world in a right way, if I did a right thing when took a textbook, what I wanted to know for; if this goal setting depends on what I represent by myself, who I am, if I could deal with some knowledge or it just seems to me. Such questions do not come up in shallow people. May some of you forgive me, those who, maybe, do not take themselves for superficial but also do not ask themselves such questions. Exceptions happen. However, that person who has similar questions is, as a rule, on a halfway to introspection, to introspective–psychological findings.

 

It is curious that introspective psychology, which deals with revision of that true, which is happening in yourself on the phenomenal level, examining a noumenon, noumenon world, world of visualizations, – is very poorly developed here. That is why we (I mean us, western people with a totally–rationalistic type of thinking) should put the emphases on this very science. If to try to learn some subject without realizing the necessity to use oneself, as if looking at oneself from the outside, – there will be at least a laughable situation. For to study without realizing it means to alienate oneself from oneself to a larger degree than it can look at the beginning, i.e. to that tragic degree when a person departs to completely different scope, staying on vital, organism level and does not attract the most important a human has – culture.

 

We agreed to call culture as the fifth dimension in autodidactics. The fifth dimension should become the principal building material in creating such “technologic” systems, which would help us to think, assist us to make the issue of memorizing to be the secondary.

 

During last decades, the term “information boom” became broadly popular: what else it could be – information pressed us down; it is almost an information tsunami. So many pretty vignettes were made up by journalists, who decorated not only us with leisured figments but overlaid public consciousness and subconsciousness with a deep conviction that a memory–storage, which is traditionally understood, really exists. Scientists believe absolutely differently. Memory does not exist in the form imagined by trivially thinking people. Memory occurs to be only as a component of thinking. Unfortunately, confusion between simple homely consciousness and the one, which develops somehow, even if always behind the leading scientific consciousness, encourages many false talk. That falsely interpreted, what we have in pedagogics now, often hampers us to learn math, for instance, or English, so popular these days for its “fiscal” value. Therefore, many things that are connected in pedagogics to memory, demand to be reviewed. The picture, we will try to portray now in a few strokes as an artist does on canvas with a piece of coal (imagining more, by the way, than drawing), must be utterly different.

 

So, how does the process of memorizing happen in reality? It turns out that in the moment, when one truly memorizes something, he/she experiences an amazing delight. Why amazing? Because it is connected to poetry, i.e. to surprise. And because for a person, brought up in the society where total rationalism (in a strict sense of the word, which captured all of us) dominates, that delight can really seem quite strange.

 

In the East, in the countries where longstanding traditions of dualistic philosophizing are in existence, China, for example, where Confucianism does not give up its positions at all and its introspective antipode – Daoism (for Confucianism could be called as secular Daoism) demonstrates impressive techniques and ways of thinking, delight and surprise in the process of memorizing, would look not only natural but also essential. I will not put it as a topic for a discussion or dispute but I suggest you to find out about to the extent you can.

 

Now I sit here – Row 8, Seat 8, – analyze, imagine and think if I have heard about this. Do I really need to re–estimate my understanding of memory? What will it give to me? Or, as many say now, what will I “earn from it”? I answer directly. Because I dismiss the problem of memory, – the relief of my consciousness and, the main thing, subconsciousness takes place. I will receive a social and ethic winning. Finally, I will not hide my complete or partial illiteracy in some sphere, justifying it by absence or imperfection of memory. A quote now: “I don”t know English because I don”t have enormous memory like others do”…A fabulous artifice, which is quite common! I don”t want to cite a lot and you probably realized that there is somebody among you, who is lurking behind the phrase on the absence of memory. However, memory cannot be missing in a clever person, for if one thinks, one essentially remembers. It means that our task is not in training our memory like an athlete exercises one”s own body, – we must organize the process of thinking correctly.

 

When the process of thinking is more effective?

 

When it is interesting to us!

 

Now imagine pedagogics, which is built on a principle of making everything, what we do, to be interesting and it should be always like that. Imagine this happiness, this paradise and this amazing position of things, when you – a free person – think, memorize and realize, that you will surely memorize if it is interesting to you; when you manage yourself according to your reflex of freedom, about which many educators simply forgot, but, fortunately, psychiatrists remind, indicating at dangerous asthenization of school students.

 

Now, sitting tête–à–tête with one”s own woeful meditations on: “I will never remember this monstrous amount of characters in the dreadful books of these, God forgive me, Chinese – why don”t they understand, they are cultural people, why to preserve hieroglyphics?”, – I come to a conclusion, that it is not necessary to learn it.

 

One needs to love it.

 

I love one little example. One day I asked a boy I know:” Did you learn you mamma?” – “No…” – “But do you remember her?” – “Yes…” Here it is, as it appears, thinking and love are connected! In addition, to the point, poetry in a pedagogic process has a much bigger significance than commonly attached. Rudolf Steiner[1] drew attention to this at his time. He was a remarkable thinker, who at our time, so to say, in our eon, not in our epoch, was simply forgotten for we, as it seems, passed so many different phases in time for other peoples, that this Soviet eon became of supersize – that is (a very real example of dimensional time) our present to the humankind, result of experiments on ourselves.

 

We learn now that interest is necessary for us to start thinking profoundly. But even interest as such is not regarded by us as it should – honestly and in good conscience.

 

What is “interest”? Firstly, it is that to which we come to as to something wished. It is the subject of some pre–love or sympathy at least. We are not going to research now why such primary interest comes up for the need of doing something different. We need to ascertain: if something interesting is always interesting to us or, in other words, does enamoured Mary constantly love Pete? If not, then something should be probably done to oneself to become identical to oneself, congruous to one”s “I”, one”s ego.

 

And what should be done in this case? Unconditionally, the level of my atomic honesty should be determined – do I really feel interest to history, to Pete, Mary, to this person in general and to humankind in particular, or I flirted with an idea that maybe I love history, in a drive of some sluggish thoughts of mine which were not controlled consciously.

 

Am I “loyal” to beloved history at any moment of my life? – No, as it turns out. I loved it at the moment when it was 17.55 PM but when a minute–hand shifted one point, for some reason I thought how beautiful the monument is here, just remarkable monument, to Taras Shevchenko… I already forgot about history, though, one can certainly say that I thought about Shevchenko against a background of love to history. Why do I give this example? Probably you already know – to lead our thought on the path of actualized interest, which is quite useful for walks in introspective–psychologic limits.

 

Let us analyze a word “actualized”. It is that, which happens “now”, “in reality”. There is one news program on Radio Austria, which is called “Aktuell”, i.e. “this minute”, “now”, “at the moment”.

 

This is from where one should begin to look into ones complexities. From two starting points, the first – atomic honesty, the second – you already realize – interest.  Look how curious it is: we, as it comes out, can connect now, may it be in our mind still, a process of memorizing with honesty and interest. If I have a flash of interest (soon I will explain how to organize it), I can naturally count on memorizing. May I not be able yet to consider memorizing as a side effect but it will be a big success already when I learn how to create an actualized interest.

 

And how to create it?

With a help of breaking a toy…

 

“A toy should be broken”, – the nature whispers in a little”s ear. And a little brakes a toy. Is it curiosity from hooliganism? – No! It is a very true, I would say, genetic curiosity, generated by the nature, by Essence, which is perfecting itself. This is something, which is called to life by Eternal Educator (who is called by masons, by the way, as Great Architect), who is called by many religions as God.

 

Linking ethics to a process of memorizing, we cannot but say one more word: “Beatification”. Or “cleanness of thoughts”.  The matter is, that if we don”t mention now this phrase – “cleanness of thoughts”, we will never comprehend all primary technique of inducing an actualized interest.

 

And how easy it is to break a toy, if we already have some imagination and child”s cleanness of thoughts. Namely not hooligan thinking but that very pure, very original thinking, which leads to compaction of knowledge. Just yesterday a little had two objects for cognition per one square meter: this car and this doll but now, after he broke both, he has at least four objects…

 

Effect of breaking up – is really the universal effect when learning the world. What does a child do? – Cognizes the world. How? – Absolutely subconsciously, using a method of actualizing interest. Therefore, if we want to study well, we have to permanently use a method of breaking a material. There is a question to answer: how?

 

To start with, no doubt one needs formalization, a distinctive algorithm of its usage to make an adult to be able to use it not on the level of subconscience, as a child does, but quite consciously. For this we use, for example, a rule of 3, 14. I smile for it reminded many of you number π. The rule states: divide each moment into three without using a clock, i.e. work at least with three subjects, which are never negligibly small.

Why did I choose such a number? – Because number π goes to infinity, tuning in a certain way and nobody knows where this line of figures is leading to. Now I want to recollect words of Nikolai Berdyayev[2], remarkable, honest, open, wonderful person and bright erudite: “I am sure that our imagination takes us to beyondness. It is a door to a different world”. He was 100%, 1000% sure in it. Let us listen to the genius.

 

Unfortunately, we got accustomed to such kind of relations with other worlds as were demonstrated, for example, by Vladimir Mayakovski[3] in his renowned poem, dedicated to Sergei Essenin”s[4] suicide:

 

You departed,

           

                        as they say,

                                  

                                   to other world.

 

Emptiness…

 

            Fly,

 

                        crashing into stars.

 

No prepayment for you,

 

nor saloon.

 

Soberness

 

                        […].

 

Of course, “other world” can cause nothing but a feeling of irony and familiarity here. We not just got used but brought up such attitude in ourselves, following “classics” and also Vladimir Mayakovski. However, there is science and there is by no means mystical (not a curse in autodidactics) but rather physical “theory of strings”, which, I dare say, proves more or less hypothetically but mathematically any way, the existence of a multitude of dimensions.

 

In other words, now I want to immediately shake our remarkable consecutive logic, to make it less steady and to try together with you, having secluded in public, to make the first tiny step in the direction of a probabilistic logic, inscribing it to our consciousness to read and re–read masterpieces with its help all our life, to learn to see the other with its help, realizing that the other – is a human, who looks very much like me, whatever one has as merits and shortcomings. The only thing, which makes us, mortals, different from each other – is a gene of originality, which God bestowed upon us. This gene is unique, it exists only at the moment and only in this vale.

 

I will not talk now on contiguity of the world of physiology and theology, I won”t try to theologize biology or to arrange eclectic dances on the table of science, – no, I don”t need it. I only want you to understand that there is no such circumstance in our consciousness any more (and we have to agree on that right now) as “everything is completely clear to me, from the first sight”, for when we look at it the second time and it will be the second look, – many things will be already changed.

 

The matter is that in the course of an enormous number of years the nature of a human (I don”t know whether it perfects oneself or not) changes undoubtedly. It is changing not somewhere in the United States of Mexico or America, but in each of us by making different the nature of us since morning until night, since night until morning – ceaselessly. The evolution of a Homo Sapiens depends on how I build my nature, how I arrange things inside.

 

А



B



C


D


Grandeur can”t be borne in life of

everyday. The truly Great in it,
rather reminds simplicity,
and cannot be from it divided.
Less fire makes more smoke,

and one tells a sham prophet from afar
from pace, considered on the go,

when easy step is natural more.

How the Great is dignified with simple,

when plain by sight at times,

his face has nothing of an icon!
And I suspect, delighted, when

beautifully one becomes a mere mortal

that I met probably  a Great one!

 

Valery Kourinsky (Word for word translation)


Now we arrive at the conclusion that we need to learn to build interest. – How? – We simply need to break material and to work this way.

 

We mark the first stanza with letter “A”, the second – “B”, the third – “C”, the fourth – “D”. After complete reading, I firstly pay attention to stanza “A”, then to “C”, then to “B” and then to “D”. This is one technique. The second: at the beginning, after acquaintance with a complete text in general, I pay attention to the first, then to the last and – in order – to the second and the third stanzas.

 

After you “play” with a text this way, you”ll suddenly catch yourself that you would like to read the entire text again, from its beginning to the end. The interest to action comes up. Make a schoolstudent to read something with interest some times! Two different approaches, two different attitudes. The most curious thing is that you feel like not just reading again but you want… to learn! To learn! That is why children run after teachers who use this system and ask after a month of classes: “Vera Gavrilovna, tell us, tell us please, when will we start to study?”

 

I hope that we ourselves (meaning our internal person) will “run after” ourselves, after understanding what it means to behave honestly in regards to one”s internal student. First, one must throw out rods once and forever. Stop being a flagellant, quit beating yourself for being “a blockhead, a fool, who can”t learn anything”. One must not be a midieval teacher, flogging himself with a ruler for the least fault. It is necessary to be in the state of love into one”s internal pupil, who always wants to develop. This is secondly. By the way, that love is not to oneself, for an inner person is not exactly us but the one who is lead by us. This is where certain mysticism starts.

 

You certainly learned long time ago, that a split personality is a very, very bad thing. Although, it does not prevent you from splitting successfully hundreds times per day. Excuse me, maybe it is not that bad?! For such scientists as V.V. Nalimov[5], I don”t even speak about other very “reactionary”, “capitalistic”, “bourgeois” (and whichever?) specialists, began to speak at the top of the voice about plurality of a personality and they state that this very multipersonality is an evidence of intelligence.

 

Jesus Christ has not one but infinity of personalities. Maybe multipersonality is the very goal? We will surely touch it not in an introductory course but later, in the third part of our quite big, almost marathon course. It is enough now to take into consideration the knowledge, which I just presented, adding at the same time, that methods I described sort of demonstrate how to put the main aside, to margins. It is impossible not to quote a great Russian poet Osip Mandelshtam[6], who said: “Cross out that, which is in the middle and leave what is on the margins”. (Crossing out should be done in the mind, though, it would be truly fine externally too.)

 

It is extremely important in our opinion to develop such a style of living, which would allow to do the main as if digressing aside. You can make an experiment at home (our course is both theoretic and practical, that is why – practice in a laboratory under the name “life”): put a textbook in front of yourself, open it and read until you feel that it is not interesting for you any more. Then, right away (material should be prepared before), switch to that, what you assume as something, which would be certainly interesting to you at the moment. Such material can always be found in the apartment of an intelligent person, who probably has a lot of books, etc. So, referring not in mind but in fact, de facto, to that material, which is interesting to you, you will suddenly feel a surprising attraction to that, which you moved away and which was not interesting.

 

Do you see how curiously we are constructed? There is such a Ukrainian saying: “It maybe worse but it”s different”. This is where the essence is, psychologic gist of the method I am trying to describe with words. Try how it works. Realize finally: we must not learn something completely and finally, must not grasp it completely once and forever or read “War and Peace” or Bible definitively.

 

We should return to it all our life.

 

Why somebody cannot learn Chinese or English, does not do well in math or biology? Because he/she is more often busy not with science but with getting degrees for oneself (I will use again wonderful Ukrainian folklore) – “One is sleeping and sees a chicken”. Seeing a chicken when sleeping replaces education. During a sleep, we must see worlds, whose multiplicity proves our humaneness. A human is more human the less he/she belongs to one”s own organismity. This organismity, or “vitals”, is a carrier of all these our embodiments as pupils. To make it easier, we study on the level of organism, vitals. We teach ourselves to skills.

 

If to touch the issue of what we should generally dedicate ourselves to in life, then I have to say: we should devote ourselves to a skill because it is a crime to be outside of the Elite of Masters. The biggest crime against spirituality is exactly there – that a person does not become elitist in this sense. A human must be elitist, must be a Master if he/she is healthy and if not, then Masters will give their support to him/her because they are merciful and not egoistic.

 

So, – forward to elitism, to masterhood. Masterhood is certainly a knack and a knack is of course skills. Skills are first of all atomic honesty (“atomic” – no need to explain this term for it is absolutely clear). Atomic honesty is manifested, as scientists say, i.e. becomes apparent in an actualized interest.

 

The ends of the circle have met now. Buy the way, I do not mean the interest to women in general but to one”s wife, to beloved. Because there is no such a thing as “I love all humankind”. We loved all humankind under Stalin, under Brezhnev, maybe under Gorbachev also, I do not know. However, it is impossible in reality if not to extrapolate a little. Briefly speaking we need philosophy, for us to study we need a way out of organismal, sausage kingdom (which I don”t condemn at all, for our student, excuse me, is organismal and we must lead it away from peccability, from being stuck in fleshliness).

 

We will never be able to boast of making an actualized interest once and forever. By the way, it is also connected to our original sin. We are not saints and all the time we need to overcome this non–sanctity with the help of … what? With the help of an actualized interest! I consider this approach to be unbelievably beautiful because it includes ethics, honesty, integrity of a human as of a thinking and feeling creature (I will expend on this later) and brings down the process of education to the elementary, elementary indeed, to the simplest thing – to a movement. A man begins with an elementary movement, with auftakt, which he/she should realize to relieve constriction.

 

I think that today, when we speak about a thought, it is necessary to speak about a feeling.  Feelings do not exist separately from thoughts. If we agree on this, if we mean it, we will come to a very comfortable way of thinking, introducing into practice so called psychologic poses (stances, attitudes).

 

An attitude (psychologic pose/stance) – is a position of our imagined internal person regarding some noumenal, felt, ideal non–object, which turns in this way into a sort of object. Somebody can surely say it is awfully philosophic but what will be in practice?

 

Since now we must finally learn to imagine ourselves as doubled people, as people who feel sort of two creatures in ourselves: one, which speaks to us with an internal voice and the second – which informs on oneself multisensorily, transmitting information along neuron systems about one”s feelings and pains. We deal with a vital man in the second case and we have to re–educate it in a way that it learns to execute assignments connected to happiness, true human happiness, – assignments of high moral standards.

 

The first attitude, which we call heuristic (a ver–r–y difficult word, but some children, for example, know a word “communism” not worse than “heuristicity” and understand both, accepting as given what in the first case is noumenal and in the second – phenomenal, i.e. really exists), – is “a attitude of a mushroomer”. If we want to examine something, we organize a heuristic pose by imagining a mushroomer: “I wake up at 3 o”clock in the morning, not disturbing anybody at home, wash my face fast, dress myself quietly and go to work, to awful work in the wet forest. Scratching, tearing through the depths of the forest, I am looking for a cep, a mushroom (but I run more into boletuses)”. You tune yourself to search, you are heuristic, heu–ris–tic, you are inventive in some second meaning of the word, you want to find and working this way, you naturally rest.

 

On this basis, one can create any attitude.

 

Life of a person, who is able to organize oneself as a creative creature, naturally turns into such, which can be called a life of a creator. Remarkable Soviet composer, I consider him to be a great composer, Boris N. Lyatoshinsky[7], once angrily said, criticizing a monument of Vera Mukhina[8] dedicated to Peter I. Chaikovski in front of the conservatory in Moscow: “Who writes music like this?!” Certainly, nobody does, for music, as everything else in the world, is done the same way as a breakfast is cooked, woods cut, as one sweeps the floor or washes baby linen. Creation is the same general, fragmentary work since the morning until night and then since the night until morning. It is a charging of subconsciousness in such way, that when you sleep, rest, at the same time you are in a heuristic, creative state. How to make it possible, you ask? There are methods. I insure you that later you yourselves will learn to devise such methods. But for now, be so kind and use what I will offer.

 

Mantra method of falling asleep. Now all are interested in such terms as mantra that is why you probably know that “mantra” – is acoustics. You will grasp now why this method is called that way. The first thing we need to do – is to take any sound and to repeat it while observing oneself. Sound “s” for example. It is a sibilant: “s–s–s–s…” Immediately some word comes up, which can be turned into an image (it works easy with people, who have good imagination but if it is not developed well, one needs to make efforts of the will and to try to imagine a drawing or something else). Let us assume “snow”. We imagine snow for two–three seconds. Those who love art can recollect a painting of I. Levitan on which snow is depicted. Do you remember? – Good. You can take a painting of Claude Monet, who has something similar. Next. After two–three seconds. Again, we pronounce: “s–s–s–s…” Sea! Imagine the sea, recollect how it smells…Do you hear how it makes noise? And again: “s–s–s–sail!” “…Lived the man, who sailed the sea…” Have you imagined?

 

Rightly used (and rightly used means used at the proper time) the mantra method of falling asleep gives wonderful results. We fall asleep very fast because we practice a right tuning of the brain for this thing (i.e. for sleeping).

 

How to fall asleep rightly? One can do anything but before going to bed he/she must return to that, which is actually interesting, – to read Shakespeare, for example in original language and to stop oneself at the most interesting place, feeling grandiose vital, body fatigue, when muscles not just moan but sing for they want to rest, and nerves are overstrained to excess; then we use the mantra method of falling asleep and you will get a practical result of charging subconsciousness for the whole night. Try and see – you will certainly begin to sleep two hours less, as all intelligent people do.

 

In addition to the mantra method of falling asleep, we need to teach ourselves to always wake up 15 minutes before. Do not think it sounds too mysterious. A usual question is: “To wake up 15 minutes before what?” My answer: “Before that deadline when we need to get up”. And do not get up, do not rush: “Oh, my God, where, what, where to, faster, not to be late, to be in time…” We should stay in bed and wait until it is unbearable to us, certainly unendurable to our soul, not to the body, because the soul wants to get up and find out what is “bifurcation” for example? Only then, after keeping oneself for a while like before, you get up and…(pardon me, I understand that it is very intimate but we agreed that everybody here is alone with oneself) firstly look into a dictionary what “bifurcation” is and then you do all the rest. This will be education, self–education under a right priority. Try it!

 

Once in “Wochenpost” newspaper (German) I found very interesting “cardiologic” data saying that the law of mechanicians – to switch on gradually and to switch off at once – is valid for a human body. To switch on gradually – is to wake up 15 minutes earlier, to switch off at once – is the mantra method of falling asleep. Here we go – the rules and practice have begun now. Please, try these rules and you will get an integral, actualized or self–actualized stream of studies, which will often seem to you as if alive and organic, because material is built up gradually and you will have, as if on purpose, to move it to margins, not trying to work on it directly.

 

Destiny should be made piece by piece. Once Jean–Frederic Joliot–Curie[9] said that he would never achieve anything (though, his words were that he accomplished very little) if he didn”t stop kissing somewhere, if he did not quit a newspaper, which should be read until the end, and if he did not serve to the embodiment of his dream (which can not be embodied, as some people think, “on vacations” or “since Monday”: “…there will be vacations and I will learn Chinese; I will quit smoking on Monday…”, etc.). One should not wait until Monday but start working immediately, – maybe in little pieces, maybe in fragments, – on that embodiment of a dream, which was meant by Jean–Frederic Joliot–Curie.

 

Now you know many important things, though, as you see, only little time has passed and we can make already a brief overview of some general principles.

 

There is no such science for an autodidact, which would be considered by him/her as very useful for pedagogics, for autopedagogics or autodidactics (from Greek “autos” – “oneself” and “didacticos” – “instructive” from “didaskein” – “to learn”). I mean now that science, which we began to study both as practice and science simultaneously. “Autodidactics” is certainly a very old word. However, that systemic approach, which I, as the author, suggest you, is integral and combines in itself the newest data of many sciences, which, at the first glance, are not related to pedagogics. Everything that we use in autodidactics is called to serve to health (both spiritual and physical) of a human, for later not to undergo (even with the help of imaginative methods) treatment for cancer or AIDS. (Though they write that results of such methods are incredible in all branches of medicine. In Dallas, there are cases of complete clinical recovery of patients with cancer, who underwent therapeutic treatment with the help of imagination.)

 

Everyone can imagine, we have discussed that already. One has better imagination, one has worse. However, the person, who imagines more pure, i.e. more honest, or, let us say, more God–pleasing, takes far less of the risk, notice, of not memorizing something or of losing health because of excessive studies.

 

What does it mean, you ask? And I will answer, as probably some member of Pope Academy of Sciences in Rome would do. The point is not just in God–pleasingness but also in its embodiment, in manifestation of our God–pleasing activity in some elementary things.  For example, an award for a research is received by us not in currency or other fiscal form but in a very interesting chemical way. For instance, when a human acquires any new knowledge, he/she certainly receives a portion of so called endogenous opiate (“endogenous” – is “generated inside”, “opiate” – has the same root as the word “opium”), i.e. encephalin and endorphin, which the nature gives as drugs but in difference to exogenous drugs, those which are brought from outside, they surprisingly fruitfully work on us as rejuvenating medication. That is why, please, do not ask autodidacts why they look so young! Why do they stand such huge load? Because God, so to say, feeds them from the spoon.

 

A human receives a prize for creation. However, that creation must be in positive culture, not in devil”s manifestations. It should exist with a maximally pure intention and it should pass control at least from the point of view of simple humanism.

 

We will study now one more couple of theses to correctly work on arrangement of purity of thoughts: we will try to clear out what vanity and ambition are for an autodidact.

 

Vain people value themselves first. They want to stick out. They demand a lab straight away: “…give me and I will prove to you”. The point here is not in one’s skill but in one’s name. The cause of a big number of hardened vainglorious folks in the countries of Eastern Europe, including ours, is surely connected to total atheism because a passion for such self–positioning is an emanation of this aspect of being.

 

Social psychology proves clearly that the majority of suicides are connected to the fact that a human makes an external career before the internal one. He/she failed and the tragedy is there. If one became a Master for oneself, inside of oneself, then, probably, life would not be so bitter. Environment, milieu, ambiente may not recognize someone but that one knows well that he/she has skills, for example, to ride a bicycle and even on a vertical wall. Society may reject one, society may not need such a Master at the time. However, the Master refines oneself and finds an apprentice. And Dymkovo toys[10] do not vanish and wonderful traditions of West Ukrainian vertep theaters[11] do not fade away. And that, which is extirpated with the help of a whip, weapons, armored troop–carriers, does not die out because a Master is alive, because a Master does not need any other reward than God–pleasingness and endogenous opiates. Because a good mood, which is built in our body by a mass of different particles, appearing at the moment (I mean neurotrophic mediators), – is also given in the name of incentive of our creation. That is why Mozart laughed so “idiotically” when he had nothing to eat. That “idioticy” was in absence of accordance between a vital level of understanding of life by his environment and that remarkable mood he had when he could write:

 

It can seem incredible for a man who lives on a vital level, thinking that to feed oneself is the main thing.

 

Once I had a chance to look through interesting books with research on behavior of a human under extreme conditions, which load one can stand, where are the limits, how long one can, for example, be in boiling water, etc. Authors of those publications arrived at newsworthy conclusions: everything in this world, or as I said – in this vale, depends on our imagination. Imagination is a fabulous instrument in the work of a educator, whom we call an autodidact.

 

A human must study all life long. But now and then, from here and there, a rueful exclamation reaches us: “Why my life is so boring?” Because, we answer, I received a diploma and stopped learning. Education can be only unfinished, it should be education, which meets the definition: to form, to create, to become. Everything moves in the world and I would surely create a saying like: “Modus omnia est” and let us use it: “All is movement”. Education too.

 

That education, which one receives, also moves, but where to? – Along the vector towards degradation, the personal one first of all. Boredom is the main reason of cancer, I tell you without being afraid of any objection of some scientist, therapeutist or surgeon. Abraham Harold Maslow, a very great American psychologist, a representative of “humanistic psychology” looked at the problem the same way. Not only him. Many known scientists are convinced that absolutely everything should be done today on the humanities’ base. And foremost, that is work with one’s own imagination as with “levers”. Look how the practical part of the course of autodidactics, which you have taken already, – both creativity and purity of thought, fit into the picture of the world, which is offered to us in one voice by the best contemporary thinkers from ethnographers to biologists and cyberneticians. I am tuned creatively, I am creative because all the time I am searching for a method of how to do something and not to memorize; how to do it for cleanness to come out because my talent depends on the purity of my thought, if I am in the limits of positive culture.

 

For completeness of perception it is necessary to say that if I left those limits or, in other words, a man left to Satan, then a devilish designer will be absolutely different for experience is acquired according to opposite rules there, though they are fully analogous but with a negative sign. We will not expand on this for the absolute majority of people in the world are constructive, not destructive. It is easy to prove: the world exists, it lasts, continues, therefore, destruction does not predominate and the world is being built.

 

That is exactly why we must, we should work on education in the name of respect to ourselves. In general, that is “Bildung” (“education”) from “Bild” (“painting”, “image” in German) – as if constructing with the help of an image. Here finally we have reached a conclusion that through education we could move to perfecting that gene of originality, which is surely bestowed upon us by God.

 

Now let us try to make a projection of this gene of originality in the form of a scientific and artistic image: I have it here and it obliges me to work on that talent, which I still have to recognize. How do I recognize talent? – very simply, certainly, according to the system of an actualized interest and I believe psychologists will develop such a test one day. An actualized interest is the best method (I mean technology of an actualized interest) to define one’s own gift, which is far from been known at once. That, which is interesting – more often comes out well and since it does – it means that not simply my soul is disposed to it but the nature itself adjusted me for it. Understand how exciting it is to find one’s own abilities with the help of little chains of actualized interests, when you suddenly arrive at a conclusion that long time ago you could achieve good results if you earlier gave up to a feeling of lightness in mastering some material. For this to be done, it is necessary to have a choice, to have a mental outlook. Therefore, it is required to follow one more rule: to exhibit as much material as possible.

 

Cardiologists, whom, as you see, I began to love strongly today and quote them all the time, say that we have a sort of two hearts: one is known to all, the second one is muscles. It is exactly the same with the existence of a kind of two psyches and mental outlook is our second psyche or a psychic sphere, which is constituted around us. Look, there is no mysticism here, however, now we will analyze mysticism from these positions. A human, who wants to normally correlate with the world, should learn to feel and to receive assistance from outside, through “eidos”. Those people, with whom we communicate, contact us not only, as they say, with auras but also through a “collective eidos”.

 

What is “a collective eidos”? This is something close to “egregor” of Daniil Andreyev[12], i.e. some aggregate of microleptonic particles, which exists as if above culture. However, it seems to me that as an image, the expression I thought up –”culture as the fifth dimension” – is perceived much better. In this fifth dimension, a human feels oneself as if in an ecological niche, which preserves one as a human, but very unfortunately, we are almost completely moved away from that ecologic niche to vital space, where we do not have a chance to live fully as humans.

 

Culture, which has a global nature, is envisaged firstly as particles or fragments, communicating between themselves. If there is no Ukrainian science today, it means a black hole on the globe of science. It is better to call it “a blank spot”, which is the same. This is the absence of a globe, it is something wounded for to think in Ukrainian means that one could think such way only in Ukrainian. It should be exactly the same way in the scope of the world.

 

There is one specificity, a wonderful specificity of giving definitions, which is certainly included as a topic to learn in our system. We will work on that a little. And one more thing: for God”s sake, do not be afraid of (this is the only time during the course when I dare use a prohibitive particle “no”) terminology, to which you will start to get accustomed in two–three days. This terminology is known in many of its parts but of course it demands reconsideration in autodidactics for it is used specifically and known words take on some other nuance. It becomes especially clear when we look at everything in corpore, as a whole.

 

In such way we approach quite concrete things but at the same time we should never forget that such concrete things as, for example, a culture of movements of speech organs, are possible only because we want to enter the fifth dimension – a human can not live without, because we draw all positive energy from the very fifth dimension of culture.

 

Sure, a lot of mysticism is here but is it bad to be mystical? It is easy to explain: we ruined, sensu stricto, a huge amount of high experiences like miserable animals in a slaughterhouse. Abraham Harold Maslow calls them “peak experiences”. He has a phrase: “Love, in the broadest sense, is as necessary for organism as other different components”. We need high experiences as vitamins and you should not think it is something abstract. It is essential, even material because the noumenal becomes phenomenal here and it is easy to prove if (may it be quite mechanistic) to count on a biological calculator and reveal how ruination of high experiences shows itself in illness, misfortune (in a bad mood one was crashed by a car), etc. After all, we know well that a man is punished for sins. Why? There is some integration of deeds in everybody’s life and the biggest sin, in my opinion, is to betray oneself, one’s gene of originality, one’s talent, one’s high experiences…

 

As you see there is nothing mystical in it and if we read works of Mario Bunge[13] and a big number of other scientists on this topic, we will perhaps come after them to a colossal neuro–phisiologic, general biologic, etc. validity of all these statements.

 

Nevertheless, let us return to our concept and take such pair to start with: emotion and judgment. “Ivanov is a man. All men are mortal. Ivanov will die” – this is a judgment, Aristotle’s logic. Everything is very logic, right? Which emotions did appear in you? Such judgmental thinking, by itself, is not particularly emotive, which directly calls emotions in us. It is cold and even boring – you compute it and forget about. Now let us take another pair of notions: feeling – thought. Have you noticed that the level became higher in our perception? I am sure that those who know Russian must have a sensation of a higher level. Now I want to tell you that writers, I bear in mind the meaning of the word “writer”, which it had in Russian in the 19th century, testified ages ago, both on paper and parchment, that there is no such a thought, which is not connected to a feeling, not to emotion, mark it, but to a feeling.

 

How to tell emotions from feelings? Probably there is such a regularity, which can enable us to grasp the difference. In what does it exhibit itself? – In elementary things – in a connection of a feeling with a thought, with a mental sphere. That is why, in autodidactics, a contraposition of a feeling to a thought is certainly a foolishness, nonsense, drivel, because only emotions and judgments can be contrapositioned but as soon as we enter the sphere, which is called the fifth dimension of culture, as soon as we touch true human mentality – we do not have the right to ignore the psychic experience. They say that animals do not have such an opportunity, at least now, but people have. Only a human is able to turn a pair “emotion – judgment”, which animals also have, into “feeling – thought”.

 

Note, it is already a method. To truly think, to think human–like, one should use exclusively thought-feelings, which are very easy to define: if some thought does not excite me – it is not a thought, it is still a judgment and I should turn it into a real thought, i.e. a form of expression by way of a complex of sign sets should be transformed by me into such, which could become a source of my inspiration and could cause admiration in me, not calflike gleefulness but admiration on what we see in this thought.

Quite a natural question comes up, why don’t they teach it at school? Because the school does not care a straw about your spiritual enjoyment. Because there are instructions, which do not envisage it. You can say: here he is, a denier, don’t you go to far? – There is no and could not be any confrontation between autodidactics and school, textbooks and systems, which exist there. It is able to use everything, but how – that is on the conscience of autodidactics, you see? It is not able to confront and a confrontation is not needed at all, for there are excellent textbooks, wonderful teachers, diligent students and beautiful buildings with good equipment. There is only one thing missing: freedom from total rationalism…

 

Now let us continue to learn some initial methods of autodidactics on concrete examples, formulating them on the simplest, I would say, on the earthy level.

 

The Rule of 3 minutes 14 seconds. Firstly, let us realize, what does it give to us if we use this number – number π – in its three–figure, very and very shortened form? It is tuning to irrationality, i.e. to switching on a so–called right hemisphere of the brain.

 

We will imagine now quite schematically and conditionally that there are right and left hemispheres – I will not draw convolutions, it is like an apple. Obviously, there is neither right or left hemisphere of the brain in some real complete sense. There are only functions of right and left hemispheres. We are practicing reduction in this case but it is absolutely legitimate.

 

What is the right hemisphere responsible for? You know that well for you probably went to school: it deals with images, music, operating not with words but with that, of what words are made, – extralinguistic, extrasign tasks, which are very necessary for the organism. This is a sensory part of the brain, it is a sensing hemisphere. A left hemisphere is in fact a brain of a human, which deals with language, signs, formulas, paradoxically turning a human into antihuman, into a dehumanized creature, in something robot–like. Have you noticed how interesting this dialectics is? Since the time of Aristotle and even more so since Descartes, Europeans took to a left hemisphere accentuation and opened the epoch of total rationalism when everything is handed over to a judgment. A man, who is called totally rational – it is a dirty swear–word these days among scientists (certainly, progressive ones) – is absolutely unable to think in that sense of the word we agreed on, i.e. to correlate every judgment not just with an emotion but with a feeling, transforming a judgment into a thought.

 

Now you see how a step towards development of a skill of tuning right and left hemispheres will be decisive for us. We should make this step in the soundest manner, analyzing: what is a movement? For this, it is worthwhile to recollect two known sentences. On of them belongs to Aristotle and it seems to concern very simple things. I have in mind a thought of Aristotle that each movement has a beginning, middle and end. Sigmund Freud is the author of the second one. It seems to me that just this statement alone deserves Novel Prize. He said that if I become aware of some psychic grip, realize why I have this psychic tension, see what determines it, – I get free from my psychic grip. Brilliant, isn’t it?

 

Now we will try something, which is maybe the biggest achievement of Western psychology of the last decades. In 1979 in Massachusetts State, the US, on one beautiful day a small scientific incident took place. Some psychologists came to their friends in the Institute and declared: “We made a discovery of the century”. That was the finding of tuning right and left hemispheres. As it came out, it is extremely easy to tune them for as they say in similar cases, – all of genius is simple. So, differentiations in tuning and then some other natural manipulations (do not be afraid of this word, I want to go back to its original meaning, because a word “manipulation” comes from “manus” – “hand” and we speak about managing the brain) are connected with ability to manage processes in us, with our own educative systems, which are self–tuned but under our control in a way that you turn out to be a master of the system, which is placed in you.

 

It is of course a bit simplified perspective as well as the scheme “right–left” but it is necessary to start with, because it works, as Euclidean conclusions work for a geometer: we are all geometers, we use Euclid’s geometry, which is absolutely wrong for big, normal spaces but admissible for small ones, when curvature can be neglected. That is why, sometimes, when we apply reduction, we consciously underline a drain from a true state of things towards a confluent of the main truth, which is constantly changing the composition of water. The truth is flowing and in a minute the world will be absolutely different, including the nature of a human and our vision. Thusly, we consider perfection as some quite original joint process of external and internal.

 

Now we go back to the rule of 3 minutes 14 seconds and to tuning. We will look at the practical side of it. As we already discussed, it is necessary “to break toys” to organize an interest. Grownups are so wrongly reoriented in their internal world that they forget about natural pedagogic methods and stay in captivity of totally different pedagogic and psychic imperatives – they don’t break a toy but try to theorize there, where it gives a very low effect and should be replaced with pure physical movements, which we will attempt to do in this case.

 

So, if we have object A, then object B, then object C, – we can switch attention from one object over to the other in little over a minute because 3,14, as an irrational number, is not divided precisely in 3 and we need it exactly for us to finally cease to be total rationalists even subconsciously: it is impossible to divide and it is time to accept it after all! Remember, this is a very important comment. Such observation over one’s own sensation can originate a splendid life–long serial of impressive watching, which will provide a large amount of causes to be delighted with how a skill is formed, how a dynamic stereotype of a knack is born in us and we, as if taking note from the outside, experience pleasure in our observation, as a gardener does when observing growth of apple–trees and pear–trees.

 

We already discussed how to execute this rule. Different, absolutely different variants are possible but it is extremely important to switch attention, as scientists say, nonsuccessively, nonconsecutively because the sequence of one by one causes, as you probably noticed (for your subtlety in observing yourself hopefully grows literally every fragment of a second), a sensation of ennui from just an intention to do something successively. Moreover, experiencing a micro–ennui often causes a huge boredom.

 

Not to notice oneself means not to see an atom of honesty in oneself, not to recognize the very microscopic which started in you, not to feel pride for the purity of thinking or not to be cultural intentionally, i.e. not to feel shame for bad, malicious intentions. If we have not brought this up in ourselves yet, i.e. in our students until now, we have to urgently think well: how to educate a human?

 

You hopefully heard the name of a remarkable educator Martin Wagenschein who died not long ago. His creation was Darmstadt’s seminars, which had a great success in Western Europe and are studied attentively in the whole world, I am certainly silent about our country because it is somehow not integrated into the notion of “the whole world”. But what was so special in those seminars? First of all that Wagenschein perfectly felt defects of mass–education, mass–enlightenment, which makes a human to be a conformist, a non–creative unit of a society, who is easy to be governed with the help of totalitarian methods.

 

I think this issue distracts us a little from tuning the brain, we will come back to it, however, I have told you many times already that one can be in our system properly only feeling manifoldness or multichanneling of studies. One should begin to bring it up in oneself right away. In other words, if you take an interest in one thing, in other one, – it is required to do it according to the rule of 3 minutes 14 seconds, – in the third one, at once you can put into use some channels of your thoughts through experiences, certainly positive, which charge in the morning for the whole day, and through connections between material, which you surely actualized as interesting material. This amazing connection between points of a space of meanings, the space we are able to sense, attaches us to evolution through the feeling of participation in it.

 

If this happened, be confident that your second observation, which I am going to tell about, will certainly come about. You will notice for sure that suddenly many things will be prompted to you because you did not miss an opportunity to scrutinize that systemness, which exists objectively. Once great Kant said: “Die Welt ist geordnet”, “the world is put into order”, it is necessary just to discern the system, to see the cosmos (“cosmos” is “order” by the way if to translate into Russian), because it is impossible to see order if you have not discerned the system before. Now, having deciphered this rule and learned to tune the brain, let us study by using exactly this systemic approach, because one should firstly put order in the world of oneself, in one’s vision and only then in the Supreme Soviet – to put order, knowing precedents, knowing how it was 3 000 years ago among Dravidians and understanding who Euripides was and how he knew politics. Note that such multifoldness concerns, pardon me, also our sausage activities, concerns a huge number of things, which we do not think about when we learn, for example, math, etc. And they, those things, are under the canopy of culture. However, not only they – different other components should be in its blessing, for the given world to correlate aright with others in the harmonized cosmos.

 

Coming back to the issue of mysticism, I want to draw your attention to one, very interesting for us, thought that experiences which exist in being are designed exactly like the nature is plotted in, let us say, a spectrum color palette: “Every hunter wants to know where a pheasant is”. And so many intermediate colors, so many half–tints! Coming to Kiev in the summer, nobody in the world counted how many hues are here – it is impossible for orach at the foot of the known monument is absolutely different next time. Such nuances should be taken into consideration.

 

Now we go back to self–tuning. A left hemisphere is tuned, as you probably already understood, with the help of “a homeopathic” remedy: we begin to work with signs; we attempt to count. Who among you does not know how to count? – All can do it. It means that now I can surely say that everybody in this auditorium can, literally in a moment, master the method of tuning a left hemisphere. So: one, two… It is likely not enough for some have brain, which is very difficult to tune and therefore, try to extract the square root from nine. Have you done it? Now cube it. Perfect! Believe me, your left hemisphere is tuned now. Then we will make a little test, a passing check how that works out, OK?

 

Now let us move to tuning of a right hemisphere. One can play piano, can look at the painting of Ilya Repin[14] “You have not expected it”, draw a little rabbit or a mouse. Do you laugh? Have you noticed that an emotion emerged in you? One of the main emotions is an emotion of interest, emotion–princess, emotion–queen, which generates an opportunity to think. If such an emotion exists, then, probably, a cause of it exists too. Where did it suddenly appear from? From comprehension, which is very curious, beyond verbal and emotive. In other words, we have tuned the right hemisphere with the help of an image: there was a mouse here but maybe not a mouse, maybe music? I do not know, it is important that those were not words – that was something, which we will provisionally call a source, inductor, inducing our experience. Many examples could be given, when those experiences, which we acquire under total and totalitarian pressure, influenced on the change of tuning of our brain in very different ways. This is how, by the way, a real propaganda works – through subconsciousness, when a man does not realize even why he/she wants, for example, to buy soap, a lot of soap, Indian also? This is a psychosomatic thing.

 

However, “let us come back to our sheep”, “revenons a nos moutons”, as the French say. A left hemisphere can be tuned with the help of signs, which are performed by us. We can also tune the right hemisphere… with the help of signs, have you noticed: are sounds not signs? But special signs, which are directed to other receptors, to other perceptive devices and they operate completely different, in a way that images come out as a result and then experiences.

 

Experiences can be low and can be high. Which experience is high? Naturally, that one, when I simply love, because all the rest is “loved complicatedly”, compoundly for the most part, slave–like. I speak about love, which was wonderfully put into form by the phrase of Pushkin[15] “I loved you ardently, so gently, and wish you to be loved by someone else like that…” – I mean this love, certainly complex, but it is simple nevertheless and it generates high experiences, a feeling of exultation and solemnity, which was driven away from our life, from the world of our feelings, and therefore we suffer so much from non–templeness, non–altarness and so on, therefore we blindly fall, in the present fashion, into as if religiousness, which, apropos, does not absolutely meet the adequate understanding of oneself.

 

A human always has an intuitive thirst for high experiences, which, especially lately, were prohibited because before we had to do with surrogates of high experiences, when they idealized some of our leaders and a goal, which we were reaching but could reach it in no way. However, as strange as it may sound, this plaid sometimes also a positive role in the society but there is no way out and surrogates cannot replace global human tunings for they are innervated with our thoughts which correspond to them and are dissolved in them and present a single whole.

 

Realize please that a thought–feeling is not divided such way: a thought is on the left and a feeling is on the right. It cannot be for one diffuses into another, because a thought is also a feeling to the extent, which I feel now, sense, therefore experience. We must experience each thought, if it is a thought and subtle people probably understood that this is a splendid method for control, when I define a thought exactly like this, not different. All the rest we went through during a day must be thrown out as rubbish, as ore, thusly receiving a clean thought–feeling sphere in a very short time. In my opinion, this is the way to prepare thinking, to prepare internal evaluativeness – I mean estimating activity, i.e. an evaluation work inside of us.

 

Not to be a solipsist, one should certainly remember remarkable thoughts, I am ironic a bit now for not many here could probably remember, but let us recollect the name of a philosopher, which is “broadly” known in this country – Emanuel Levinas. Some time ago, by the way, being born in Lithuania, he was Levin, which is Levinas in a Lithuanian manner, then he lived in Kiev until he was seventeen, maybe spoke perfect both Ukrainian and Russian, but because after seventeen years old he left to learn from Husserl[16] and Heidegger[17], he is considered firstly a German philosopher and then, after he received French citizenship, – a French one. Amazingly humanistic thinker, he did an overturn in ontology, he worked on philosophy of relations between people. He has a wonderful phrase that classic ontology, i.e. a theory of being, philosophizing about being – is an egologic thing, the science, which is sooner about “I”, which does not recognize others. He believed there should be l’autre – the other. This very understanding of oneself through the other should lead a man at present. Exactly this understanding is found by philosophers every time, observing new nuances in the development of the human nature in each new generation.

 

It would be a complete absurdity, in my opinion, to imagine a philosophy–free development of an autodidact, that is why we introduce one more rule, which is extremely simple as it seems to me, – “The rule of total dialectics”. Note that we use a word “total” in different ways and in this case, you probably caught positive semantics in it.

 

Usually, when one graduates from a university, he/she recalls sometimes that studied dialectics. Some keep even a textbook, looking contemptuously at it from time to time: dialectics (!), but they forget entirely that a phenomena, which is known to all under its name and maybe not understood the way it should, – is the only thing, unfortunately, we know about the world for quite sure. Because dialectics, which is there in the textbook, left in the second place, is present absolutely everywhere, in every process, in your every action, deed and activity, in every life, which is simply a sum of dialectic (understood or not) processes.

 

Why have I started to speak so pseudo–scientifically? The thing is, if I want to wake up thinking in myself, in my internal student, I must use some earthly rule, which can be explained on fingers to a child, even in preschool age. Only then we will begin a true, autodidactic rethinking of everything. Do you understand what this is all about? Now, hopefully, my constant striving for bifurcation, dividing in half and building oppositions will not seem strange to you. Sometimes these oppositions will be controversies, as philosophers say, i.e. oppositions, which do not make a dialectic unity of oppositions. They will be contrapositions, controversies and contradictions. However, they can be dialectic, by the way, which is very easy to demonstrate with one Chinese example. Taoists have one simple rule: if something reaches a point “ji”, the upper pole, the absolute in development, then in a moment it turns to be in a point “di”, that is in the lowest point of the oppositional pole. Or one more example for clearness: if to bring light to the condition of absolute light, it will turn into darkness. Look how mechanistic this is, how simple!

 

I would like to briefly touch an issue of productiveness of the usage of some thoughts. I mean such thoughts, which are possibly not true, – by the way, could you name at least one true thought?! – but comfortable because they are productive and can be conditionally accepted as thoughts, which are necessary for making some useful steps for our creative intention.

 

You see where we began to pull our ship, rather our barge still. We all, having seized a tow, walk already not along the bank of a brook but, believe me, along the river. We began from a source, since the moment when a brook was purling and only far off something of a little hope glimmered. Now, as you see, we pull a barge full of rules, which is still heavy and we cannot say so far that we hold something technically perfect in our hands. However, the song has started already and it is fortunately, – there is a unity of oppositions also here – not haulers” “Dubinushka”[18] but a joyful, anticipating, wonderful song of an organism, which finally becomes to be treated humanly by some higher forces in us. Those forces are imperative, ordering and subordinating. For we, having driven ourselves into a bog in a strict sense, into a mire of vitalism, a mire of organismness, act very foolish, demanding mental results from this very organism. Exactly such results are possible, as we showed, and you will ascertain that very soon in practice, if attentive to my recommendations. We learn on every step that practicing violence, which is impermissible in pedagogics, inadmittable in creative work, we give a very nasty service to ourselves because it is possible to manage oneself in a way that working thirty, one hundred and maybe even one thousand times more will not seem something incredible and you will not give a whine from whipping oneself, your organism will not complain to you that you turn an object in a way that it hurts you and you finally learn to see that object in yourself, an object, which pseudo–materialists forbade to see as existing in itself according to Kant (in my opinion it is the only right realistic approach), and you will develop such perception in yourself, beginning to observe it, that external process, process at the output, as programmers say, your sensations, sensorics, which, through accordance with high experiences, will provide exact information on what you really need and that will lead you to realization of yourself. Complicated, of course. One cannot say it is a simple wording but you know we are not plain to a large extent, we do not even know what a brain is, until now we do not know what a brain thinks or what it does not think, it is unknown to everybody. Clever and very knowledgeable people on the issue of brain, top connoisseurs of it are inclined to believe that a brain is just some unique device, which does not produce thoughts and starts thinking only when a thought is induced by some other huge, cosmic and big thought and all this is connected certainly to that thing, which we know little about but what was known in some integral form in the great antiquity. We will discuss it another time and now will probably return to a movement.

 

“A movement is a morphologic organ of a human or the highest animal”, – once said a remarkable man, who is very modern, unbelievably modern and who was called “Blessed”, Mubarak in Arabic, Baruch in old–Jewish, or Benedict in Latin. As you probably understood, I mean Spinoza[19]. And note, there is one catch in the phrase, one little nuance, to which a clever person should pay attention: “A movement is an organ”, a movement itself is an organ! One should comprehend it, should get accustomed to it, as one can become used to a sign, a hieroglyph, to a really wonderful invention of a human mind. I would strongly recommend you to read a monograph of N.A. Bernstein[20] “On composition of movements”, firstly published in 1941. It was recently reissued in the last edition of the works of Bernstein. Unbelievably interesting thing!

 

Now let us work on details, which are connected to a movement. Do you remember we discussed that a movement, according to Aristotle, has a beginning, middle and end? Let us scrutinize what a beginning of a movement is. To move from the place, I need to make an effort in the brain, I need to think first and I do it completely reflexly, as any animal, on a vital level. Even if I am a dog, my goal is determined, or course, mentally in some way, because I have a wish, stimulus and intention, which are emotive – this is not a thought yet, I do not have an impulse to go and take a book of Petrarca from a shelf, dogs do not read Petrarca but they can learn to read somehow, to determine signs – that is the only difference. Additionally, when they read, they do not know they work on reading, likewise a cow does not realize it thinks, although it thinks wonderfully. They do not have high experiences – it can be perfectly proved, a cow is unable therefore to pray. But a human should pray, a human should be able to Worship. If one does not do it, there will be no high experiences. Therefore we are reaching out towards God, that is why we, normal people, want to love, to love not like we were suggested but differently and to treat each other differently and that is why I underline now the importance of such philosophic concepts like Emanuel Levinas’s, almost our compatriot.

 

So, we developed a subject, which is called “Culture of movements of a speech apparatus”. Why speech apparatus? Because a mystery of the nature under the name “language arts” stands at the cradle of everything, which is done humanly, because at the beginning there was not this simple and commonly earthed word, – at the beginning there was Logos, i.e. feeling–thought. There was something, which simultaneously became truth and love, and meaning, because a meaning is impossible without lovingness, without unity. Only in this dualism, the Devine exhibits itself, everything a human can reach manifests itself. And if I reached, touched and again, falling, feel an unbearable thirst to touch a different part of the Devine, because my nature is changing constantly, I, as if with beads, tell my essence and come out again…to poetry.

 

This is what American philosopher and poet George Santayana[21] wrote:

 

Oh world, you’ve chosen not the best role for yourself.

It is not wisdom, to be just wise

and shut the eyes to soul, which is inside.

To trust the heart – is wisdom.

 

Now, if we want to attain what is called in international scientific psychologic and pedagogic practice as harmonized thinking, if we want to get rid of old clothes of conformism, which we used to dress up because of belonging to totalitarian regime, then our road can go only through a feeling–thought. Totalitarianism is our original sin, we were born in it, we not just wear many secondary features of totalitarianism – we are conformistic intrinsically, in fact, we are still in one comprehensive hypnoidal state, which is extirpated slowly so far. It is natural, for an oil spill does not disappear at once, nebulas are not eliminated in a second, especially those, which are too far to decorating the skies of human morality. I believe you understand me, both literally and, at the same time, certainly pedagogically, i.e. particularly?

 

Who is “a conformist”? – A man/woman, who terrifically possesses a studied helplessness, a miraculous owner of human disgrace, which is very often expressed in simple common phrases: I don’t know a foreign language because I don’t have memory, I don’t play piano because I don’t have talent, I am tone–deaf. Studied helplessness has a cause, which is much deeper than just soviet pedagogics, – it is socially determined defect of many psyches, which dwell in our bodies. And this cause, as you realize, is very political, this cause is related to the fact that a totalitarian society does not need individualities, it needs surrogates of them – artificial personalities, shaped non–identically to the present–day human nature.

 

The human nature is constantly changing. Some parameters changed fabulously, even mythically, i. e. mythologically and become to be discussed at every corner. Compare a behavior style of a teenager of this day with a behavior style of teenagers in 1947. One could hear a curse at that time too but for a girl in a well–mannered family to tell her mother: “Ma, what the shit are you watching?” – there could be no trace of it physically, because it could not fit at all the points of a social and psychic circle. It is possible now. I do not want to say that the world became worse and that a boy and a girl were better at that time.  A contemporary style of intercommunication, as strange as it may seem on the face of it, is related to how philosophic today’s youth is. Then, a boy and a girl were, as it comes out, not as philosophic and the evidence of that can be easily obtained from “ABC of Psychology” by Jean Piaget[22] (written at that time), who said that boys and girls were not philosophizing. Trust Piaget really, to whom I, a little man, take off my hat. He was the mind of the century in his sphere and if he did not notice something, it was because it did not exist. It did not exist! Our children became totally philosophic and that is why we should work with them philosophically now. And because an autodidact is going to continue to live, he/she will have grandchildren, great–grandchildren, not to mention children, and great–great–grandchildren, for autodidacts live for long, they should be equal to task. Therefore, at least toward that end, one should firstly become philosophic, should become a cultural human.

 

It is time now to refer to Martin Wagenschein, whom I had mentioned already and who once set up Darmstadt’s pedagogic seminars. He said that external pedagogics (for lessons with somebody) rests upon three whales: das Interesse, das Wort, das Beispiel.

 

Let us look at details:

 

Das Interesse (interest) – it means that I should study according to interests, as if working genetically on development and taking learning of any subjects as evolution of the society through myself.

 

Das Wort (word) – it is clear, probably, first of all for educators, because teaching cannot be carried out without vocabulary, without a word. I promised to return to this for Logos, understood (at least it is my wish) as I told already, is at the head of all pedagogic disciplines one way or other. You realized now that das Wort – means that it is on the level of a philosophic and wise dialogue, in a condition of permanent explication, explanation, ascertainment of the truth, explanatory work in oneself, meditative activity of one’s own, keen thinking, which was associated here more often to being a foe and which was persecuted heavily for some reason. You remember, probably, at least from history, such dark period when here they loved to put tags and speak in printed media with condemning articles against writer N., who was practicing reflection instead of depicting valorous labor of workers and peasants, who were building the communist future? Can you imagine what we had come to? All great writers were terrible people because they  did nothing but exercised reflection?! Are you able to imagine how one can come to introspective–psychologic methods in pedagogics without using reflection, i.e. becoming aware of one’s own thinking? Certainly not. It means that if I am not aware of my thinking, I, firstly, do not see myself from aside and live, francly speaking, as a cow. Secondly, because I violate the main law of human existence, which reads that I must be identical to myself, i.e. to a human but not to a cow, – I am to be punished for I am criminal in this case. It means that a human, who is not being realized, who, as they said in the old days, does not become – is surely guilty before God and oneself.

 

Das Beispiel (example) – the third part of the concept of Wagenschein. When you learn a subject, you see sets of rules for sciences consist of notions–terms (in the original text the word sounds as “termini” in plural) and interrelations between them. These interrelations are described by special rules; with the help of rules, operations are formalized and algorithms are developed. Any science is a sum of rules and terms, it has nothing else. But the rules can be viewed in examples. It is possible to do it, that you will have a set of rules in examples and owing to them, you can do something, which is very important in autodidactics, – to infer your own abstractions, your individual abstract wordings.

 

N1 – > G –> N2 (The author’s formula and concept)

 

You see the formula, in which N1 – is “a note”, “sign” as an occasion to think about something, an occasion to get interested, G – is “Gestalt”, “form”, “image” and finally N2. We cognize a form through, relatively speaking, so called palpation, looking over, hearing over, etc. i.e. through multisensory perception. In such way, approaching what is denoted as N2 in our system, we receive our own formula, an individual abstract variant of representing a form. It is not without reason the word “abstraction” means “draw”, “distraction”, you know that “to attract” is a synonym of “to draw”. We sort of draw out of ourselves those meanings in our signs, which will be always different. We draw out of ourselves, out of that what we felt but felt through an example, due to a concrete demonstration.

 

I am delighted when watching a professor or a student of a vocational school, or a pupil of the 5–7th form, who seem to be so far from each other but in truth, they turn to be unbelievably close because they splendidly participate in the same play – entering the water of the sacred Ganges of science, impulse, talent, inspiration, touching great experiences where there is no age, where there is a service to eternity. Do you remember Nikolay Berdyayev, who once said: “We are thrown out of eternity into times”? It was written at that time when there was a real attempt to throw us away. Probably, thank God,  it turned out to be impossible and we come back to eternity. We return to eternal ideals, to comprehensions and sensations, which are ineradicable fully because they make a base, an essence of all human existence. We cannot guarantee that a complete renaissance of some high technologies is possible, – I would say it is probably unattainable, however, what is feasible is that now we can receive a variant of such richness of experiences, which will embellish to beyond recognition the globe of our world–wide morality, the globe of our human, cultural potential, – it is certainly possible. It means that today we will work not only on a foreign language, which is awfully necessary for us to go abroad but also on Arnold Schoenberg[23] because if I don’t understand Schoenberg – I am not a modern man. Because without Pierre Boulez[24], I am as if a disabled, who unfortunately became such in Afghanistan. Now I cannot step over the past, which I, as a man living on the Earth, am supposed to perceive multisensorily, i.e. it is not enough to know that oh, there was Signak[25], oh, there was Schoenberg. Thusly, now we came to those ideals of autodidactics, which cannot be picked up as a horseshoe, which brings happiness but, having understood their importance abstractly for the time being, one needs to turn them into Gestalt, into a form. This will bring an unheard–of benefit to lessons. Unheard–of!

 

The fact that we can bravely speak about success, which will accompany us, if we take foreign languages as a model of autodidactics, following a principle of a culturologic group, – comforts a lot. I think that this correctness is conditioned again by the biblical: “First, there was a Word”. But Lord forbid anybody to get into a loop and to learn languages as if they are something, which is an end in itself and have a self–sufficing sense. Our existence should be heterophonic, sounding variously, comprehended as a constant multisensory, multiperceptible pedagogic symphony. Self–teaching symphony. Symphony, which is indispensably poetic.

 

Genuine poetry is always meditative. It does not matter how hard we try to find good poems, which do not have a thought, – we will not succeed. A thought will be for sure, for there will be an experience, high experience. And if this thought did not seem too high, it means that we have not read the poem yet. There are no great verses without a great thought. Note, if to take this statement for a working hypothesis, – a good instrument will be again in our hands. Reading poetry, we can accumulate high experiences for resting upon them, attaining a feeling of a psychic backing because these very high experiences connect us to eternity.

 

Trying to imagine future work in an integrative way, I will show now, for it could be lively for you to think about a practical side of the thing, how so called pronunciation will be arranged, in other words – different movements, regarding pronouncing sounds in some foreign and in a native language. However, coming close to the culture of movements of a speech apparatus, we should certainly bear in mind that everything in a speech apparatus is connected not only to movements of separate muscles but also to thinking, to predetermination of concrete sounds in our phonetic system, which we use, because it is semantic, because it is significant and meaningful, its roots go far deep.

 

How to arrange a pronunciation of a foreign vocabulary? For that goal, we will look at the law of focusing of muscles’ tensions of a speech apparatus. Let us become a bit biologists, doctors, maybe even anatomists and ascertain what we work with when we speak. What is a speech apparatus? A thing, which is highly prosaic-phenomenal – muscles, sinews and so on. However, a speech apparatus is God’s gift, it is amazing, it produces certain sounds, which coincide with canons of the universal Beauty! What we call the law of focusing, though connected to imagination, yields nevertheless to purely mathematic description and is formulated as follows: “Absolutely all sounds of any language, if to look at them as at muscles’ tensions of a speech apparatus, have points, in which vectors of those tensions meet”. In other words, I can define some place for a given concrete language, where vectors of muscles’ and psychic tensions will meet, what, if necessary, will correctly and accurately tune me to one or other language, playing a role of its “bird call”. Thusly, with the help of the law of focusing, we receive a real tool, a real opportunity to govern that, which was absolutely unmanageable before, I mean arranging a pronunciation, which we trained by straining our ears. We were sitting for hours in language laboratories but as a result we pronounced wrongly again. And if it is not correct, then an inadequacy to the nature of a language, which is carried primarily in movements, will cause a psychic grip, which, in its turn, will never allow to reach a full relief and freedom in using a language.

 

Now we will try to reproduce a birdcall for Russian, to understand just practically many things from those I have said and move from N1 (do you remember the formula?) to the second “Gestalt” stage, when you will not just see but sense with a tongue, locomotively, with imagination, almost by taste. So, a birdcall, a lure with the help of hearing, with the help of a tongue itself and a good deal of other various factors, which are studied insufficiently by the way, should prompt to us a sensation of the focus point in Russian. “Ei, ty!” – is a birdcall for Russian. If you attentively repeat this phrase in your mind, you will attain a feeling, as a result, that absolutely all vectors of movements meet in the center of a mouth, i.e. between a palate and a base, a lower part of a mouth. That is why a forwarding, or a focus, will be central. One will say “Ei, ty!” and will begin to speak excellent Russian with a forwarding to the center of a mouth. If there is a need to switch to Ukrainian pronunciation, we will at once pronounce a bird call, which sounds very simple also: “Pidu dodomu”, or any other if it only meets demands, which we will discuss later, when we better know the culture of movements of a speech apparatus upon the whole, for now it is of little use. So, we will say softly: “Pidu dodomu”, “Pidu dodomu, tam vyshni budu yeesty”. Now in a Russian manner: “Ei, ty!” – “Pidu dodomu, tam vyshni budu yeesty”. You see this completely striking difference and it is only because I changed the focus!

 

Many people think that a word is a primitive thing, which does not deserve respect, which, according to such definition, can be treated frivolously, can be babbled, pronounced the way one likes, where one likes and that one can prattle them with no relevance to anything. But this is a huge error one has to think about, as well as about one more. Mane people consider the Humanities as imprecise sciences. This is the second error, which is maybe more subtle but curiously enough it is more considerable than the first one. This very opinion has caused an unconditionally negative attitude to intelligentsia and intelligence, brought to depreciation of a thought; it brought to the situation when a subtlety became to be treated as something unnecessary. Go to any publishing house and give them unknown poems of Mandelshtam as your own and they will call you a graphomaniac. And what to say about a young person, who starts thinking today, about a human, who is not clear to me right away, what should I tell him/her? If I will think the way former bureaucrats in thinking did, I will ruin this person!

 

We should learn to realize one simple truth – subtleties change and such people as Ganin appear, who write music under a piano, not on it or at it as it should be according to our understanding (absolutely genius boy, Composer of Thought, as he calls himself). There is a great deal of other methods of thinking, which our sages have not dreamed about yet but tomorrow they will be legitimate, legal, they will become brilliant because conditions will change, because a straw will move in a hay–stack and the being will change, and some subtlety in some talented human will have to manifest itself, for that person to differently evaluate this hay–stack of art. We should have such a pluralistic, multiple position when we enter together the sacred territory of culture and look at the single star, having raised our heads.

 

I wish you to understand: we take the language model for a base but we do not erect languages high on a pedestal, which can prevent us to put something different on it, something higher than languages and maybe even higher than an individual life because there are things, which we repeat automatically without any assessment of our beyond life accomplishments. Yes, there is something, for sure, which is incredibly important beyond one life. And how wonderful when we harmonize eternal with organismal, of vale, bringing, by our sincerity and talent, that part into being, which makes it much more beautiful and people then certainly become more handsome and a kingdom of Masters comes up and a Master writes on the bottom of a casket: “Made by…” – and seals up forever, and there is no mote there and if somebody will ask: “Why, nobody will see it?” – He will answer that God sees everything…

 

Thus, we come again to the law of conscience and tenderness. Moreover, note, I touch now the culture of movements and the issue of movements of images. There should be some macro–movement of imagery in our development. If we resolve now to come to sensations, which young John Keats[26] (he died also very young) had or William Butler Yeats[27], whom we may know poorly now, – they are as necessary to us as philosophy in Ukrainian in the make–up of the world’s globality. With pleasure I would speak about this in Ukrainian and we would bring into the world, with our joint thoughts, harmonized at this moment, when we look at the single star together, something, which cannot be obtained in any other language. Exactly so we should also correlate with other components of being, with morality, with our potentials, which are hidden inside us.

 



[1] Steiner, Rudolf (b. Feb. 27, 1861, Kraljevic, Austria––d. March 30, 1925, Dornach, Switz.), Austrian–born scientist, editor, and founder of anthroposophy, a movement based on the notion that there is a spiritual world comprehensible to pure thought but accessible only to the highest faculties of mental knowledge.

[2] Berdyayev, Nikolai (b. March 6, 1874, Kiev, Ukraine, ––d. March 23, 1948, Clamart, France), religious thinker, philosopher, defended ideas of existentialism with prevailing issues of philosophy; taught on primacy of freedom over being (freedom cannot be determined by anything or anybody, even by God; its roots go to not–being). One Western philosopher said: “Berdyayev was very Russian…but quite many not–Russians discovered that his books opened new horizons of thought to them…”

[3] Mayakovsky, Vladimir (b. July 19, 1893, Bagdadi, Georgia,––d. April 14, 1930, Moscow), Russian Soviet poet and artist, at the beginning he was intensively looking for new aesthetics, new principles of artistic apperception of the world; author of the first manifesto of Russian cubistic futurists calling artists to active participation in life; made poetic vocabulary richer, introduced new principles of rhyming, different verse size, expressiveness & his known “stepped line”.

[4] Esenin, Sergey, (b. Oct. 3, 1895, Konstantinovo, Ryazan province, Russia––d. Dec. 27, 1925, Leningrad), subtle lyric poet, master of deeply psychologized landscape, singer of peasant Russia, belonged to “Imaginists”.

[5] Nalimov, Vasili (1910, Moscow, Russia), scientist, philosopher, worked on the development of a probabilistic philosophy, statistic theory of analises of the matter, mathimatic theory of experiment and scienceometry.

[6] Mandelshtam, Osip (b. Jan. 3, 1891, Warsaw, Pol.––d. Dec. 27, 1938?, Vtoraya Rechka, near Vladivostok, Russia), major Russian poet and literary critic, began as a representative of acmeism; his poetry, semantically complex and rich with literature associations and culture characters from different epochs, is a coupling of eternal meaning of “a word”, culture and history of being.

[7] Lyatoshinsky, Boris (1894/95–1968) , composer, pedagogue, graduated from Kiev conservatory, student of R.M. Gliyer, did a lot for the development of Soviet symphonic music, his symphonies menifest philosophic profoundness, tought both in Kiev and Moscow conservatories, among students: L.Grabosky, Ye. Stankovich, I. Shamo, V. Silvestrov.

[8] Mukhina, Vera (1889–1953), sculptor, artist, early works were romantic and laconic, designed for exhibitions, theator plays, clothes.

[9]Jean–Frederic Joliot–Curie (b. March 19, 1900, Paris--d. Aug. 14, 1958, Arcouest, Fr.), French physical chemist, who was jointly with his wife, IRÈNE CURIE, awarded the 1935 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for their discovery of new radioactive elements prepared artificially.

[10] Russian folk artistic craft, based for long time in Dymkovo; the toys, depicting horse riders, ladies in crinolines, scenes from fables and life, are moulded of clay, burned and painted with tempera and tinsel; artistic originality is determined by massive laconic plasticity, underlined harmonious decorative ornaments (circles and squares of different colors). 

[11] Folk Ukrainian puppet theater, which became widespread in the 17-19th centuries; puppets were fixed on wires inside of a 2 level box and were set in motion by a vertep-man; Bible scenes, satiric intermezzos were accompanied with folk music.

[12] Andreyev, Daniil (1906-1959), Russian poet, religious philosopher, mystic; major work “Rose of the world” is experience of metahistorical cognition and a project of saving the humankind with joint efforts of world’s religions.

[13] Bunge, Mario (b.1919, Buenos-Aires), Argentinean physicist and philosopher; paid big attention to contemporary aesthetic; considered that consciousness is “an emerging” creation of a developed, labile and plastic material system (brain) in cooperation with the nature and social environment.

[14] Repin, Ilya (b. Aug. 5, 1844, Chuguyev, Ukraine--d. Sept. 29, 1930, Kuokkala, Fin.), painter of historical subjects known for the power and drama of his works.

[15] Pushkin, Aleksandr Sergeyevich (b. May 26, 1799, Moscow, Russia--d. Jan. 29, 1837, St. Petersburg), Russian poet, novelist, dramatist, and short-story writer; he has often been considered his country's greatest poet and the founder of modern Russian literature.

[16] Husserl, Edmund (b. April 8, 1859, Prossnitz, Moravia, Austrian Empire [now Prostejov, Czech Republic]--d. April 27, 1938, Freiburg im Breisgau, Ger.), German philosopher, the founder of Phenomenology, a method for the description and analysis of consciousness through which philosophy attempts to gain the character of a strict science.

[17] Heidegger, Martin (b. Sept. 26, 1889, Messkirch, Schwarzwald, Ger.--d. May 26, 1976, Messkirch, W.Ger.), German philosopher, counted among the main exponents of 20th-century Existentialism. He was an original thinker, a critic of technological society, a leading ontologist of his time, and an influence on a younger generation of continental European cultural personalities.

[18] Name of a well-known Russian folk song of haulers and dockers.

[19] Spinoza, Baruch (1632-1677), Dutch rationalist philosopher and religious thinker. Born of Spanish-Portuguese Jewish parents in Amsterdam, Spinoza became alienated from established Judaism after studying physical science and the writings of English philosopher Thomas Hobbes and French philosopher René Descartes. Rabbis soon excommunicated him and secured his banishment from Amsterdam. For five years he remained on the city’s outskirts, writing. In the mid-1660s he moved to The Hague.

[20] Bernstein, Nikolay (1896-1966), neuro- and psycho-physiologist; his works on physiology of a movement became a foundation of contemporary biomechanics, some ideas anticipated a number of principles of cybernetics.

[21] Santayana, George(1863-1952), American philosopher, poet, and novelist, whose wide-ranging philosophical speculation gained literary distinction. Born in Madrid, Spain, Santayana moved with his father to Boston, Massachusetts, in 1872. After graduating from Harvard University, he studied in Germany and England, returning to the United States in 1889 to teach at Harvard. In 1912 he moved to Oxford, England; after World War I he lived in Rome.

[22] Piaget, Jean (1896-1980), Swiss psychologist, best known for his pioneering work on the development of intelligence in children. Piaget studied and carried out research first in Zürich and then at the Sorbonne in Paris, where he began his studies on the development of cognitive abilities. Piaget wrote extensively on child development.

[23] Schoenberg, Arnold (1874-1951), Austrian-born composer, creator of the twelve-tone system of composition.

[24] Boulez, Pierre (1925-), French composer, conductor, and pianist, born in Montbrison. During the late 1940s and the 1950s he composed highly experimental music based on the twelve-tone system, including works scored for electronic instruments.

[25] Signac, Paul(1863-1935), French Post-Impressionist painter, one of the originators of Pointillism; abandoned the short brushstrokes of Impressionism to reach a mosaic-like effect.

[26] Keats, John (1795-1821), English poet of the 19th century and an influential figure of the Romantic movement.

[27] Yeats, William Butler (1865-1939), Irish poet and dramatist, and Nobel laureate, who was a leader of the Irish Renaissance and one of the foremost writers of the 20th century.

©2002-2017 V.A.Kourinsky & PPLab
Редакция сайта: info#postpsychology.org
Реклама:
Сегодня: 19.8.2017. Сейчас на сайте: 1 чел.
         Rambler's Top100